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Abd al-Rahman I and Bedr a former Greek slave escaped with their lives after the popular revolt known as the Abbasid Revolution. Rahman I continued south through Palestine, the Sinai, and then into Egypt. Rahman I was one of several surviving Umayyad family members to make a perilous trek to Ifriqiya at this time. Rahman I and Bedr reached modern day Morocco near Ceuta. Next step would be to cross to sea to al-Andalus, where Rahman I could not have been sure whether he would be welcome.

Following the Berber Revolt s , the province was in a state of confusion, with the Ummah torn by tribal dissensions among the Arabs and racial tensions between the Arabs and Berbers. After discussion with Yemenite commanders, Rahman I was told to go to al-Andalus. Shortly thereafter, he set off with Bedr and a small group of followers for Europe. News of the prince's arrival spread throughout the peninsula. In order to help speed his ascension to power, he took advantage of the feuds and dissensions. However, before anything could be done, trouble broke out in northern al-Andalus.

Abd al-Rahman and his followers were able to control Zaragoza. Rahman I was victorious, chasing his enemies from the field with parts of their army. After Rahman I consolidated power, he proclaimed himself the al-Andalus emir. Rahman I did not claim the Muslim caliph, though.

Al-Andalus was a safe haven for the house of Umayya that managed to evade the Abbasids. In Baghdad, the Abbasid caliph al-Mansur had planned to depose the emir.

Rahman I and his army confronted the Abbasids, killing most of the Abbasid army. The main Abbasid leaders were decapitated, their heads preserved in salt, with identifying tags pinned to their ears. The heads were bundled in a gruesome package and sent to the Abbasid caliph who was on pilgrimage at Mecca. Rahman I quelled repeated rebellions in al-Andalus.

He began the building of the great mosque [cordova], and formed ship-yards along the coast; he is moreover said to have been the first to transplant the palm and the pomegranate into the congenial climate of Spain: and he encouraged science and literature in his states. He died on 29 September , after a reign of thirty-four years and one month. Rahman I's successor was his son Hisham I. He called for a jihad that resulted in a campaign against the Kingdom of Asturias and the County of Toulouse ; in this second campaign he was defeated at Orange by William of Gellone , first cousin to Charlemagne.

Umayyad Dynasty (Polity SyCalUm) Polity - Seshat Data Page

One, Abdallah, went to the court of Charlemagne in Aix-la-Chapelle to negotiate for aid. Abd ar-Rahman II succeeded his father and engaged in nearly continuous warfare against Alfonso II of Asturias , whose southward advance he halted. Thereafter he constructed a fleet and naval arsenal at Seville to repel future raids.

He responded to William of Septimania 's requests of assistance in his struggle against Charles the Bald 's nominations.

Postal Systems in the Pre-Modern Islamic World

Muhammad I was succeeded by his son Mundhir I. During the reign of his father, Mundhir I commanded military operations against the neighbouring Christian kingdoms and the Muladi rebellions. At his father's death, he inherited the throne. During his two-year reign, Mundhir I fought against Umar ibn Hafsun. He died in at Bobastro, succeeded by his brother Abdullah ibn Muhammad al-Umawi. Umawi showed no reluctance to dispose of those he viewed as a threat.

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His government was marked by continuous wars between Arabs, Berbers and Muladi. The son he had designated as successor was killed by one of Umawi's brothers. The Umayyad conquest of North Africa continued the century of rapid Muslim military expansion following the death of Muhammad in By the Arabs controlled Mesopotamia , had invaded Armenia , and were concluding their conquest of Byzantine Syria.

Damascus was the seat of the Umayyad caliphate. By the end of all of Egypt was in Arab hands. A subsequent attempt to conquer the Nubian kingdom of Makuria was however repelled. Kairouan in Tunisia was the first city founded by Muslims in the Maghreb. Arab general Uqba ibn Nafi erected the city in and, in the same time, the Great Mosque of Kairouan [] considered as the oldest and most prestigious sanctuary in the western Islamic world. This part of Islamic territory has had independent governments during most of Islamic history.

The Idrisid were the first Arab rulers in the western Maghreb Morocco , ruling from to The dynasty is named after its first sultan Idris I. The Almoravid dynasty was a Berber dynasty from the Sahara flourished over a wide area of North-Western Africa and the Iberian Peninsula during the 11th century. Under this dynasty the Moorish empire was extended over present-day Morocco, Western Sahara, Mauritania, Gibraltar, Tlemcen in Algeria and a part of what is now Senegal and Mali in the south, and Spain and Portugal in the north. The Almohad Dynasty or "the Unitarians", were a Berber Muslim religious power which founded the fifth Moorish dynasty in the 12th century, and conquered all Northern Africa as far as Egypt, together with Al-Andalus.

The history of Islam in the Horn of Africa is almost as old as the faith itself. Through extensive trade and social interactions with their converted Muslim trading partners on the other side of the Red Sea , in the Arabian peninsula , merchants and sailors in the Horn region gradually came under the influence of the new religion. Early Islamic disciples fled to the port city of Zeila in modern-day northern Somalia to seek protection from the Quraysh at the court of the Aksumite Emperor in present-day Somalia.

Some of the Muslims that were granted protection are said to have then settled in several parts of the Horn region to promote the religion. The victory of the Muslims over the Quraysh in the 7th century had a significant impact on local merchants and sailors, as their trading partners in Arabia had by then all adopted Islam, and the major trading routes in the Mediterranean and the Red Sea came under the sway of the Muslim Caliphs.

Instability in the Arabian peninsula saw further migrations of early Muslim families to the Somali seaboard. These clans came to serve as catalysts, forwarding the faith to large parts of the Horn region. Local Islamic governments centered in Tanzania then Zanzibar. The people of Zayd were Muslims that immigrated to the Great Lakes region. In the pre-colonial period, the structure of Islamic authority here was held up through the Ulema wanawyuonis , in Swahili language. These leaders had some degree of authority over most of the Muslims in South East Africa before territorial boundaries were established.

The chief Qadi there was recognized for having the final religious authority.


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  • History of Islam.

On the Indian subcontinent , Islam first appeared in the southwestern tip of the peninsula, in today's Kerala state. Arabs traded with Malabar even before the birth of Muhammad. According to that legend, the first mosque of India was built by Second Chera King Cheraman Perumal, who accepted Islam and received the name Tajudheen.

Historical records suggest that the Cheraman Perumal Mosque was built in around Islamic rule first came to the Indian subcontinent in the 8th century, when Muhammad bin Qasim conquered Sindh , though this was a short-lived consolidation of Indian territory.

Islamic conquests expanded under Mahmud of Ghazni in the 12th century CE, resulting in the establishment of the Ghaznavid Empire in the Indus River basin and the subsequent prominence of Lahore as an eastern bastion of Ghaznavid culture and rule. Ghaznavid rule was eclipsed by the Ghurid Empire of Muhammad of Ghor and Ghiyath al-Din Muhammad , whose domain under the conquests of Muhammad bin Bakhtiyar Khalji extended until the Bengal , where Indian Islamic missionaries achieved their greatest success in terms of dawah and number of converts to Islam.

Many prominent sultanates and emirates administered various regions of the Indian subcontinent from the 13th to the 16th centuries, such as the Qutb Shahi , Gujarat , Kashmir , Bengal , Bijapur and Bahmani Sultanates, but none rivaled the power and extensive reach of the Mughal Empire at its zenith.

Persian culture, art, language, cuisine and literature grew in prominence in India due to Islamic administration and the immigration of soldiers, bureaucrats, merchants, Sufis, artists, poets, teachers and architects from Iran and Central Asia, resulting in the early development of Indo-Persian culture. Sa'ad ibn abi Waqqas headed for China for the third time in —51 after Caliph Uthman asked him to lead an embassy to China, which the Chinese emperor received. Islam first reached Maritime Southeast Asia through traders from Mecca in the 7th century, [97] particularly via the western part of what is now Indonesia.

Arab traders from Yemen already had a presence in Asia through trading and travelling by sea, serving as intermediary traders to and from Europe and Africa. They traded not only Arabian goods but also goods from Africa, India, and so on which included ivory, fragrances, spices, and gold. According to T. The same argument has been told by Dr.

Burger and Dr. After Western Imperialist rule, this name was changed to reflect the name used today; the Indian Ocean. Soon, many Sufi missionaries translated classical Sufi literature from Arabic and Persian into Malay ; a tangible product of this is the Jawi script.

Coupled with the composing of original Islamic literature in Malay, this led the way to the transformation of Malay into an Islamic language. Through trade and commerce, Islam then spread to Borneo and Java.

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By the late 15th century, Islam had been introduced to the Philippines via the southern island of Mindanao. As Islam spread, societal changes developed from the individual conversions, and five centuries later it emerged as a dominant cultural and political power in the region. Three main Muslim political powers emerged.

The Aceh Sultanate was the most important, controlling much of the area between Southeast Asia and India from its centre in northern Sumatra. The Sultanate also attracted Sufi poets. The Sultanate of Demak on Java was the third power, where the emerging Muslim forces defeated the local Majapahit kingdom in the early 16th century.

Portuguese forces captured Malacca in under naval general Afonso de Albuquerque. The Sultanate's territory, although vastly diminished, remains intact to this day as the modern state of Brunei Darussalam. These imperial powers were made possible by the discovery and exploitation of gunpowder and more efficient administration. The Seljuq Turks declined in the second half of the 13th century, after the Mongol invasion.

Osman I afterwards led it in a series of battles with the Byzantine Empire.

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The Ottomans were established in the Balkans and Anatolia by the time Bayezid I ascended to power in the same year, now at the helm of a growing empire. This episode was characterized by the division of the Ottoman territory amongst Bayezid I's sons, who submitted to Timurid authority.